HealthStats NSW

Fruit and vegetables: recommended consumption in adults

Vegetables, 2012
8.6Vegetables, 2011
8.3Vegetables, 2010
8.2Vegetables, 2009
8.2Vegetables, 2008
8.3Vegetables, 2007
8.4Vegetables, 2006
8.6Vegetables, 2005
8.7Vegetables, 2004
8.8Vegetables, 2003
8.9Vegetables, 2002
8.8Fruit, 2012
54.1Fruit, 2011
54.5Fruit, 2010
54.5Fruit, 2009
54.3Fruit, 2008
53.9Fruit, 2007
53.3Fruit, 2006
52.5Fruit, 2005
51.6Fruit, 2004
50.7Fruit, 2003
49.7Fruit, 2002
48.8
  • + Source

    NSW Population Health Survey (SAPHaRI). Centre for Epidemiology and Evidence, NSW Ministry of Health.

  • + Notes

    Smoothed estimates are shown in the graph. Actual estimates are shown in the table. Smoothed estimates have been derived from the actual estimates, that were statistically adjusted to minimise random variation from year to year and provide more stable smoothed estimates for population health planning and monitoring.

    The indicator shows self-reported data collected through Computer Assisted Telephone Interviewing (CATI). Estimates were weighted to adjust for differences in the probability of selection among respondents and were benchmarked to the estimated residential population using the latest available Australian Bureau of Statistics mid-year population estimates.

    Mobile phone numbers have been included since the 2012 survey (using an overlapping dual-frame design) because of diminishing coverage of the population by landline sampling frames (<85 % since 2010). Associations between mobile-only phone users and some health indicators, even after adjusting for age, sex and region, were observed in 2012. Thus significant differences that were observed between 2011 and 2012 should be reported with caution, as they will reflect both real and design changes. LL/UL 95%CI = lower and upper limits of the 95% confidence interval for the point estimate. *Murrumbidgee Local Health District includes Albury Local Government Area.

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  • + Related Indicators
     

    Overweight and obesity in adults

    Number and proportion, smoothed and actual, by sex, age, Aboriginality, country of birth group, Local Health Districts, remoteness from service centres, socioeconomic status and year.
     
  • + Associated Information
    • Key points: Fruit and vegetable consumption

      Latest available information

      Latest available data for adults in NSW:

      • 51.8% of adults aged 16 years and over (47.3% of men and 56.2% of women) consumed 2 or more serves of fruit daily and 9.4% of adults aged 16 years and over (7.2% of men and 11.6% of women) consumed 5 or more serves of vegetables daily, as estimated from the 2013 NSW Population Health Survey (self reported using Computer-Assisted Telephone Interviewing or CATI).

        • 50.6% of adults aged 18 years and over (44.8% of men and 56.3% of women) consumed 2 or more serves of fruit and 8.2% of adults aged 18 years and over (6.8% of men and 9.6% of women) consumed 5 or more serves of vegetables, as estimated from the 2011-12 Australian Health Survey (self reported using Computer-Assisted Personal Interviewing or CAPI).

        Latest available data for secondary school student in NSW:

      • 45.5% of students aged 12-17 years (45.0% of boys and 46.0% of girls) consumed the recommended daily fruit intake and 25.7% of students aged 12-17 years (26.9% of boys and 24.5% of girls) consumed the recommended daily vegetable intake, as estimated from the 2011 NSW School Students Health Behaviours Survey (self completed questionnaire).

      Latest available data for children in NSW:

      • 73.2% of children aged 2-15 years (72.6% of boys and 73.8% of girls) consumed the recommended  daily fruit intake and 43.4% of children aged 2-15 years (40.6% of boys and 46.4% of girls) consumed the recommended  daily intake of 5 or more serves of vegetables, as estimated from the 2012 NSW Population Health Survey (parent-reported using CATI).

      Latest available data for adult Aboriginal persons in NSW:

      • 40.6% of Aboriginal adults aged 16 years and over consumed 2 or more serves of fruit daily and 7.8% of Aboriginal adults aged 16 years and over consumed 5 or more serves of vegetables daily, as estimated from the 2013 NSW Population Health Survey (self reported using Computer-Assisted Telephone Interviewing or CATI).

      Overall trends in NSW 

      Self reported data on fruit and vegetable consumption have been collected for adults in NSW since 1997 through the NSW Population Health Survey, since 1977-78 through the National  Health Survey and from 2011 through the Australian Health Survey.

      Self reported data on fruit and vegetable consumption have been collected for students in NSW since 2005 through the NSW School Students Health Behaviours Survey.

      Parent reported data on fruit and vegetable consumption have been collected for children in NSW since 2007 through the NSW Population Health Survey. Although serves of fruit and vegetable are collected on children through the Australian Health Survey, whether they are meeting the recommended daily intake is not routinely reported.

      Prevalence estimates, although differing slightly between surveys because of different sampling frames, participation rates and modes of collection (telephone v self completed questionnaires v face to face personal interview) have all been increasing over time for recommended fruit intake and recommended vegetables intake in children. In secondary school students and adults, recommended vegetables intake has remained the same.

      References

      Centre for Epidemiology and Evidence, NSW Ministry of Health. NSW Adult Population Health Survey. Available at http://www.health.nsw.gov.au/publichealth/surveys/index.asp

      Australian Bureau of Statistics. Australian Health Survey: First Results (4364.0); NSW Tables, 2011-12. Available at http://www.abs.gov.au/AUSSTATS/abs@.nsf/DetailsPage/4364.0.55.0012011-12?OpenDocument

      Centre for Epidemiology and Evidence, NSW Ministry of Health. NSW School Students Health Behaviours Survey. Available at http://www.health.nsw.gov.au/publichealth/surveys/index.asp

      Centre for Epidemiology and Evidence, NSW Ministry of Health. NSW Child Population Health Survey. Available at http://www.health.nsw.gov.au/publichealth/surveys/index.asp

    • Introduction: Fruit and vegetable consumption

      Fruit and vegetable consumption as a health risk factor

      Fruit and vegetable consumption is strongly linked to the prevention of chronic disease and to better health. Vegetables and fruit are sources of antioxidants, fibre, folate, and complex carbohydrates. The fibre and low-energy content of fruit and vegetables may benefit weight control. 

      Healthy eating is important at any age, but establishing healthy eating habits in childhood and adolescence is an important basis for long term health. Although an adequate intake of fruit and vegetables has a protective influence on health but most population groups eat less than the recommended amounts of these foods.

       Definition of adequate consumption of fruit and vegetables

      As nutritional needs differ at different stages of life, the National Health and Medical Research Council has developed dietary guidelines for babies, children, adolescents and adults in Australia. A guide for healthy eating supports these guidelines.

      For adults, the dietary guidelines recommend consuming on average at least 2 helpings of fruit and 5 of vegetables each day, selected from a wide variety of types and colours and served cooked or raw, as appropriate.

      For children aged 4-7 years, the dietary guidelines recommend daily consumption of at least 1 serving of fruit and 2 of vegetables; children 8-11 years should eat 1 serving of fruit and 3 of vegetables for children; and adolescents (12-18 years) should consume 3 servings of fruit and 4 of vegetables.

      The guidelines do not provide recommendations for children aged 2-3 years and the NSW Health Survey applied the recommendations for 4-7 year olds in the analysis of survey results however these intake levels could be too high a target for the very young children.

      The helpings or serves are defined as follows: 1 serve of vegetables is equivalent to 1/2 cup of cooked vegetables or 1 cup of salad vegetables, and 1 serve of fruit is equivalent to serve is equivalent to 1 medium piece or 2 small pieces of fruit.

      Burden of disease in Australia due to low consumption of fruit and vegetables

      Inadequate fruit and vegetable consumption was estimated to be responsible for 2.1% of the total burden of disease in Australia in 2003 and is associated with coronary heart disease, some cancers, Type 2 diabetes, overweight and obesity, osteoporosis, dental caries, gall bladder disease, and diverticular disease.

    • Interventions: Preventive health

      The NSW Healthy Eating and Active Living Strategy 2013-2018 provides a whole of government framework to promote and support healthy eating and active living in NSW and to reduce the impact of lifestyle-related chronic disease.

      The Strategy has four key strategic directions:

      • • Environments to support healthy eating and active living;
      • • State-wide healthy eating and active living support programs;
      • • Healthy eating and active living advice as part of routine service delivery; and
      • • Education and information to enable informed, healthy choices.
    • For more information: Health-related behaviours

      Useful websites include:

      Australian Bureau of Statistics at http://www.abs.gov.au

      Australian Institute of Health and Welfare at http://www.aihw.gov.au

      healthdirect at http://www.healthdirect.gov.au