Mortality estimates for years up to 2005 are based on Australian Bureau of Statistics death registration data. Data from 2006 onwards were provided by the Australian Coordinating Registry, Cause of Death Unit Record File; the data for the most 2 recent years are preliminary (SAPHaRI, Centre for Epidemiology and Evidence, NSW Ministry of Health)
Deaths are classified using ICD-10 classification and distributed according to ICD-10 chapters. Separate ICD-10 chapters on diseases of the nervous system, eye and ear and chapters on conditions relating to pregnancy, perinatal period and congenital diseases are combined into single categories in the analysis. Rates were age-adjusted using the Australian population as at 30 June 2001. LL/UL 95%CI = lower and upper limits of the 95% confidence interval for the point estimate.
Counts of deaths for the latest year of data include an estimate of the number of deaths occurring in that year but registered in the next year.
Statistical Areas are grouped according to Australian Statistical Geographic Standard (ASGS) remoteness categories on the basis of Accessibility/Remoteness Index for Australia (ARIA version) score.
The Accessibility/Remoteness Index of Australia Plus (ARIA plus) is a remoteness index value (or score) based on road distance to major service centres (GISCA). In 2001, the Australian Bureau of Statistics (ABS) applied ARIA cut-off scores to define the Australian Statistical Geography Standard (ASGS) Remoteness Areas (ABS).
The service centre categories are based on population size, with the smallest centres in ARIA having populations of 1,000-4,999. Localities with populations greater than 1000 persons are considered to contain at least some basic level of services (e.g. health, education, or retail) (GISCA). Service centres with larger populations are assumed to contain a greater level of service provision. ARIA scores are based over 20,000 such localities throughout Australia.
In the report, remoteness areas are classified as Major cities; Inner regional or Outer regional areas (these two are referred to as regional when taken together); Remote and Very remote areas (remote when the last two are taken together). The term rural and remote is used when referring generally to areas outside Major Cities.
In this report, increasing the size of areas considered is used for estimates in analysis by remoteness from service centres. Very remote areas are often amalgamated with Remote areas and occasionally Very remote, Remote and Outer regional areas are amalgamated. Notes under the graphs confirm the extent of amalgamation. Extending the period of time in which cases are counted is also used in some indicators presenting health data by ARIA.
Postal areas are grouped according to the Australian Statistical Geographical Standard (ASGS) remoteness categories on the basis of Accessibility/Remoteness Index for Australia (ARIA+ version) score. For reporting purposes, outer regional, remote and very remote areas are aggregated in order to report reliable estimates of a range of health behaviours for non-metropolitan areas.
Australian Bureau of Statistics (ABS). 1270.0.55.005 - Australian Statistical Geography Standard (ASGS): Volume 5 - Remoteness Structure. Available at http://www.abs.gov.au/AUSSTATS/abs@.nsf/DetailsPage/1270.0.55.005July%202011?OpenDocument
National Centre for Social Applications of Geographic Information Systems (GISCA). About ARIA (Accessibility/Remoteness Index of Australia). Available at http://gisca.adelaide.edu.au/projects/category/about_aria.html
In order to complete a death registration in Australia, the death must be certified by either a doctor using the Medical Certificate of Cause of Death, or by a coroner. Natural causes are predominantly certified by doctors, whereas External and Unknown causes or unaccompanied deaths are usually certified by a Coroner. Approximately 85-90% of deaths each year are certified by a doctor and the remainder is reported to a Coroner. The death is registered in the state in which the death occurred, rather than the state in which the person resides. The Australian Cause of Death Statistics System is outlined by the Australian Bureau of Statistics at http://www.abs.gov.au/AUSSTATS/abs@.nsf/allprimarymainfeatures/47E19CA15036B04BCA2577570014668B?opendocument.
The Australian Bureau of Statistics (ABS) have implemented a revision process for Coroner certified deaths. Data are deemed preliminary when published for the first time, revised when published the following year and final when published two years after initial publication. This revision process, and the impact on specific causes are described at http://www.abs.gov.au/AUSSTATS/abs@.nsf/Lookup/3303.0Explanatory%20Notes12015?OpenDocument .
The Australian Bureau of Statistics publishes two publications every year: Deaths, Australia (Catalogue Number 3302.0) in November, eleven months after the end of the concerned year and Causes of death, Australia (Catalogue Number 3303.0), in March, fifteen months after the end of the year concerned.
The Australian Coordinating Registry (ACR) is an agency appointed coordinate access to coded cause of death unit record data on behalf of the Registrars of Births Deaths and Marriages in each state or territory as well as the Australian Bureau of Statistics and National Coronial Information System. The coordinating registry undertakes the coordination and management of the designated activity. The underlying legal responsibility is retained by the collective Registrars.
The ACR provides the NSW Ministry of Health with a national cause of death unit record file to allow detailed anaylsis of deaths data.
There is usually an interval between the occurrence and registration of a death which is related to the time of year or whether a death is refered to a Coroner. The registration of deaths which occur in November and December are likely to be delayed until the following year, for example, of all deaths in NSW registered in 2013, 6.9% occurred in 2012 or earlier (ABS 3302.0).
Deaths data reported by the ABS for the latest year are based on the year of registration therefore do not include deaths which occurred in that year but where registration was delayed. Deaths data reported in HealthStats NSW are based on the year of occurrence of the death. Estimates of missing deaths for the latest year due to delayed registration (ie due to time of year or Coronial cases) are imputed for each cause and included in the count for the reports in HealthStats NSW. A small percentage of death registrations may be delayed for more than one year. All deaths figures are updated historically (eg in trends) in this report when new data becomes available.
For the calculation of rates, the NSW Ministry of Health uses population projection estimates from the NSW Department of Planning and Environment. The estimated residential populations which are not projected are the same as those published by the ABS and are currently based on the 2016 Census. See Methods associated with indicators in topics Demography (or Population) for further discussion of population estimates.
Australian Bureau of Statistics. Deaths, Australia, latest year. 3302.0. Canberra: ABS, . Available at http://www.abs.gov.au/ausstats/abs@.nsf/mf/3302.0
Australian Bureau of Statistics. Causes of Deaths, Australia, latest year. 3303.0. Canberra: ABS, . Available at http://www.abs.gov.au/ausstats/abs@.nsf/mf/3303.0
Australian Bureau of Statistics. Multiple Cause of Deaths, Australia, 1997-2001. 3319.0.55.001. Canberra: ABS, . Available at http://www.abs.gov.au/ausstats/abs@.nsf/mf/3319.0.55.001
|Description||ICD-10 & ICD-10-AM||Comments|
|Infectious diseases||A00-B99||All records are included, NSW residents only, all ages.|
|Neoplasms - malignant||C00-C99|
|Neoplasms - other than malignant||D00-D48|
|Blood and immune diseases||D50-D89|
|Nervous and sense disorders||G00-H95|
|Circulatory diseases||I00-I99, Excluding I84|
|Digestive system diseases||K00-K93, I84|
|Maternal, neonatal and congenital causes||O00-Q99|
|Ill defined and unknown causes||R00-R99, U00-U49|
|Injury and poisoning (all external cause codes)||S00-T98, U50-U73, V01-Y89|
Haemorrhoids were classified as diseases of the circulatory system under ICD-10-AM Seventh edition (I84). In ICD-10-AM Eighth edition haemorrhoids are classified with diseases of the digestive system (K64). Consequently, haemorrhoids are not included in the total count of diseases of circulatory.
• In 2017, there were 52,613 deaths of residents in NSW. The number of deaths has increased by around 9% in the 10 years since 2008. However, the death rate has decreased by around 15% over this period due to an increasing population
• The age standardised death rate was 508.8 per 100,000 population in NSW in 2017.
• In 2017 the age-adjusted male death rate was around 48% higher than the female death rate (615.9 compared with 416.3 per 100,000 population respectively). This difference has declined from 51% over the last 10 years since 2008.
• In 2017, there were 277 infant deaths in NSW, which was 2.9 deaths per 1,000 live births. The infant mortality rate in Australia was 3.3 deaths per 1,000 live births in 2017.
Death or mortality statistics are published at regular intervals in most countries and usually show numbers and rates of deaths by sex, age and other variables. A death rate is an estimate of the proportion of the population that dies during a specified period (Last 2001). In this report it is expressed as the number of deaths per 100,000 population (person-years).
The proportion of people in different age groups varies between geographic areas and over time and can therefore influence death rate comparisons within these dimensions. Age-adjustment (also known as age-standardisation) allows for the comparison of death rates across geographic areas and over time after removing the effects of the different age structures in these dimensions.
Refer to the Methods tab for more information.
Death rates from all causes are low in Australia and NSW by international standards. The World Health Organization classifies Australia into an ‘A stratum’, with very low child and adult mortality. Comparisons by country reveal that the probability of dying between 15 and 60 years per 1,000 population (WHO calculated adult mortality rate) spans from around 50 in selected developed countries to just under 500 in some African counties. Australia’s rate was 61 per 1,000 in 2016, which placed it in 16th out of 183 reported countries (WHO 2018).
World Health Organization. World health statistics. Geneva: WHO. Available at: https://apps.who.int/gho/data/node.main.686?lang=en
Interventions aiming to reduce deaths rates in NSW are embedded in strategies dealing with specific health issues or specific disadvantaged populations.