HealthStats NSW
HealthStats NSW
HealthStats NSW

Influenza and pneumonia hospitalisations

Males, 0-4 years, 2017-18
701.2Males, 0-4 years, 2016-17
537Males, 0-4 years, 2015-16
597.8Males, 0-4 years, 2014-15
529.4Males, 0-4 years, 2013-14
483.9Males, 0-4 years, 2012-13
465.1Males, 0-4 years, 2011-12
529.2Males, 0-4 years, 2010-11
538.2Males, 0-4 years, 2009-10
570.5Males, 0-4 years, 2008-09
556.7Males, 0-4 years, 2007-08
588.7Males, 0-4 years, 2006-07
522.6Males, 0-4 years, 2005-06
560Males, 0-4 years, 2004-05
632.7Males, 0-4 years, 2003-04
830.5Males, 0-4 years, 2002-03
732Males, 0-4 years, 2001-02
737.8Males, All ages, 2017-18
433.2Males, All ages, 2016-17
378.1Males, All ages, 2015-16
377.2Males, All ages, 2014-15
363.9Males, All ages, 2013-14
314.2Males, All ages, 2012-13
312.9Males, All ages, 2011-12
345.6Males, All ages, 2010-11
324.3Males, All ages, 2009-10
314.5Males, All ages, 2008-09
317.5Males, All ages, 2007-08
336.3Males, All ages, 2006-07
306Males, All ages, 2005-06
313.6Males, All ages, 2004-05
332.9Males, All ages, 2003-04
346.3Males, All ages, 2002-03
340.2Males, All ages, 2001-02
337Females, 0-4 years, 2017-18
615.2Females, 0-4 years, 2016-17
520.5Females, 0-4 years, 2015-16
545.7Females, 0-4 years, 2014-15
520.1Females, 0-4 years, 2013-14
431.3Females, 0-4 years, 2012-13
423.7Females, 0-4 years, 2011-12
490.4Females, 0-4 years, 2010-11
511.2Females, 0-4 years, 2009-10
539.7Females, 0-4 years, 2008-09
473.6Females, 0-4 years, 2007-08
544.1Females, 0-4 years, 2006-07
430.9Females, 0-4 years, 2005-06
422.8Females, 0-4 years, 2004-05
546.1Females, 0-4 years, 2003-04
675.3Females, 0-4 years, 2002-03
630.5Females, 0-4 years, 2001-02
633.4Females, All ages, 2017-18
359.1Females, All ages, 2016-17
306.1Females, All ages, 2015-16
301.3Females, All ages, 2014-15
297.5Females, All ages, 2013-14
241Females, All ages, 2012-13
239.8Females, All ages, 2011-12
262.5Females, All ages, 2010-11
260.7Females, All ages, 2009-10
243.5Females, All ages, 2008-09
244Females, All ages, 2007-08
251.5Females, All ages, 2006-07
219Females, All ages, 2005-06
232.7Females, All ages, 2004-05
243.3Females, All ages, 2003-04
258.1Females, All ages, 2002-03
251.8Females, All ages, 2001-02
  • + Source

    NSW Combined Admitted Patient Epidemiology Data and ABS population estimates (SAPHaRI). Centre for Epidemiology and Evidence, NSW Ministry of Health.

  • + Notes

    Only NSW residents are included. Rehabilitation episodes are excluded, unless otherwise stated. Figures are based on where a person resides, rather than where they are treated. Hospital separations were classified using ICD-10-AM. Rates were age-adjusted using the Australian population as at 30 June 2001.

    Numbers for recent years include an estimate of the small number of hospitalisations of NSW residents in interstate public hospitals, data for which were unavailable at the time of production. Further details can be found in the Methods tab in the following HealthStats NSW indicator:

    Patients treated solely within the emergency department are excluded from this indicator report due to a policy change (PD2017_015). Please note that a minority of patients being managed in short stay areas of emergency departments are still included. Further information is found in a paper in the HealthStatsPLUS Methods tab on this website.

    LL/UL 95%CI = lower and upper limits of the 95% confidence interval for the point estimate.

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  • + Methods
  • + Codes
    • Codes: Influenza and pneumonia

      The International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems

      National Centre for Classification in Health, Australia; AM - Australian Modification
      DescriptionICD-10 & ICD-10-AMComments
      Influenza and pneumonia J09-J18

      This indicator uses principal diagnosis only.

      All records are included for NSW residents only. Records involving rehabilitation are excluded.

      Episodes that are entirely within an emergency department are excluded.


      In 2009, the WHO recommended that ICD-10-AM J09 code be used to cover influenza A/H1N1 (initially called ‘swine flu’) responsible for the pandemic 2009 and the code has been added to the set of codes above.

  • + Related Indicators
  • + Associated Information
    • Key points: Influenza and pneumonia


      Influenza and pneumonia are a group of acute respiratory infections that can be very severe and, in persons at high risk, lead to death. They are usually presented together as influenza can lead to pneumonia and, in most cases of hospitalisation and death from pneumonia, the responsible organism is not identified. Each year, 75-85 % of all hospitalisations for influenza and pneumonia are due to 'unspecified pneumonia'.

      Severe virus-related complications of influenza require hospitalisation and threaten life most frequently in the very young and elderly (children under 1 year old and persons over 65) and among persons with chronic heart or, especially, lung conditions. Appropriate antibacterial therapy decreases the mortality rate from secondary bacterial pneumonia.

      Annual influenza vaccination is recommended for any person aged ≥6 months who wants to protect themselves from influenza and is strongly recommended for groups at higher risk of disease.

      There were 34,771 hospitalisations due to influenza and pneumonia in 2018-19 (372.4 per 100,000 population), of which 19,909  were patients aged 65 years and older (1477.2 per 100,000 population in that age group).


      There were 951 deaths from influenza and pneumonia in 2018 (8 deaths per 100,000 population) and just over 92% of these were in persons aged 65 years and over (57.4 deaths per 100,000 population in that age group). Death rates from influenza or pneumonia are very low in all other age groups. The death rate in 2009 was the lowest since 1998 for all ages and for people aged 65 years and older. 

    • Introduction: Respiratory disease

      Respiratory diseases

      Respiratory diseases include acute diseases such as influenza and pneumonia, and chronic respiratory diseases (specifically asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, asbestosis, and respiratory tuberculosis), where preventive measures and better management of conditions can reduce the burden of disease and reduce associated healthcare costs.

      Chronic respiratory diseases were responsible for 7.5% of the total burden of disease and injury in Australia in 2015, with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and asthma accounting for 51.4% and 33.8% of this burden, respectively (AIHW 2019).

      Influenza and pneumonia

      Influenza and pneumonia are acute respiratory diseases that can be very severe and, in persons at high risk, can lead to death. Influenza and pneumonia cause around 2.5% of all deaths and around 0.9% of hospital separations and are an important cause of hospitalisations in the very young, and of death and hospitalisations among older age groups.


      Asthma is a significant public health problem in Australia and it is estimated that Australian prevalence rates are among the highest in the world. Fortunately, recent studies in children show no further increase in prevalence. In Australia in 2015, asthma was estimated to account for 2.5% of the disease burden (AIHW 2019).

      Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

      Chronic bronchitis and emphysema are the two main conditions comprising chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). In Australia in 2015, COPD was estimated to account for 3.9% of the disease burden (AIHW 2019).


      Tuberculosis (TB) is caused by the bacterial organism Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Despite the increasing burden from respiratory tuberculosis globally, it is not a major public health problem in NSW. In fact the mortality and morbidity from all types of tuberculosis in NSW is one of the lowest in the world.

      Lung cancer

      Lung cancer is usually excluded from analyses of respiratory diseases as it is classified with cancers in the International Classification of Diseases (the coding system used for health data in NSW). It has been included with respiratory diseases here to provide a more appropriate measure of the burden of respiratory disease from a clinical and health services planning perspective.

      Risk factors

      Cigarette smoking is the main risk factor for both COPD and lung cancer and the current incidence rates of these conditions reflect smoking rates 20 years and more in the past. Lung cancer is one of the leading causes of death in Australia.


      Australian Institute of Health and Welfare 2019. Australian Burden of Disease Study: Impact and causes of illness and death in Australia 2015. Australian Burden of Disease Study series no. 19. BOD 22. Canberra: AIHW. Available at:

    • Interventions: Respiratory diseases


      Written asthma management plans are recommended as part of the national guidelines for the management of asthma: Australian Asthma Handbook (NACA 2015). They enable people with asthma to recognise a deterioration in their condition and initiate appropriate treatment, thereby reducing the severity of acute episodes.

      The Australian Asthma Handbook promotes preventive care activities, proper inhaler technique and adherence and stepped medical management where the use of medicines can be increased or decreased depending on circumstances and the therapy combinations.


      Australia is fortunate in having one of the lowest rates of TB in the world. This has been primarily achieved as a result of a continued commitment to provide specialised health services dedicated to the prevention and control of TB in each of the states and territories. The National TB Advisory Committee’s Strategic Plan for the Control of Tuberculosis, 2011-2015 sets out the goals and objectives of TB control in Australia.

      Despite Australia’s success in reducing TB, there is no room for complacency. Global connectivity through air travel and migration means that TB will remain a public health concern in Australia until worldwide control of TB is achieved. The NSW TB Program is the provider of specialised services for the prevention and control of TB in NSW and plays a vital role in maintaining Australia’s success in reducing the burden of TB.

      Influenza and pneumonia

      Influenza and pneumococcal disease are covered by the National Immunisation Programs in NSW.

      Influenza has been a notifiable disease by all laboratories under the Public Health Act in NSW since 2001. Surveillance is enhanced in winter months when the NSW Ministry of Health collects and reports weekly on influenza-like illness presentations to Emergency Departments, through the Public Health Rapid, Emergency, Disease and Syndromic Surveillance System (PHREDSS), and laboratory-confirmed diagnoses of influenza virus infections.

      Emergency Departments in NSW are prepared for influenza epidemics with peak visit plans and similar measures in winter months.


      National Asthma Council Australia. Australian Asthma Handbook. NACA, 2015. Available at:

    • For more information: Respiratory diseases

      Useful websites

      Australian Centre for Airways disease Monitoring (ACAM) at

      National Asthma Council Australia at

      Australian Bureau of Statistics at

      Australian Institute of Health and Welfare at

      healthdirect at

Last Updated At: Tuesday, 7 April 2020